Thursday, August 22, 2019

Environmental Case Study Essay Example for Free

Environmental Case Study Essay Malathion is a type of pesticide that is usually used in health pest control programs. For example, in mosquito eradication. It is used in various areas and public recreation areas. Other synonyms of Malathion include ‘carbofos’ ‘maldison’ and mercaptothion. It has been used in the past, to eradicate mosquito, Mediterranean fruit fly and the West Nile virus. Malathion use needs to be assessed well. In any urban set up, people are at a very high risk of being affected in case of careless use of this pesticide. Towns support a large number of populations, together with their facilities. As a member of the town council, it would be very crucial for me to carry out a risk assessment exercise before embarking on Malathion use in and around the town. The states of risk assessment will include: hazard identification, dose-response, exposure and risk characterization. In hazard identification, the hazards of using Malathion are identified together with their consequences. Hazards can be grouped into several major groupings. One major group is hazards of Malathion use on human beings. In an urban set up, a large population of people is concentrated at one point. For example, what danger can Malathion use be, if absorbed or ingested into the human body or if present in water sources. If Malathion use can case disorders in unborn babies is also identified. Another category of hazard identification is, hazards Malathion use may cause on the natural environment. This includes vegetation and even soil components. Both domestic and wild animals could be affected by its use. Just like humans, what consequences does Malathion use result to, if absorbed or ingested into the animals’ bodies. The soil interaction with the pesticide means, Malathion use can as well be a hazard to it. Soil supports life on the planet. Chemicals that would change soil composition puts at risk other life forms that depend on that soil. It would be very vital to identify Malathion use hazard and consequences on the environment that people live in. It would also be important to identify hazards of Malathion components on the water bodies. People, animals and plants use water. Identifying the hazards Malathion- contained water may expose to them is crucial in any risk assessment exercise. Dose-response This term refers to the change in effect caused by differing levels of pesticide use (Malathion) in an organism. Organisms can be affected in differing ways, by differing levels of Malathion use. Dose-response assessment would be very critical since, it helps one to identify consequences of Malathion use on organisms. It would be good, to note the effects of Malathion on organisms that exist on that environmental set up. If differing levels of exposure or doses to a stressor triggers change in effect of organisms, the effects will assist in recognizing the risks people, animals or plants are exposed to (Baker et al). Exposure of Malathion use, in risk assessment causes changes in effect of organisms. At this state, chemical components of Malathion, plus their doses are analyzed to determine effects they may have on organisms. For example, quantities of Malathion that differ will not have similar effects on either organisms or the environment. For example chronic exposure to low levels of Malathion have been hypothesized to impair memory. (U. S department of Health and Human Services, retrieved on 2008). This would need to be established if it is true or not. Possible effects of Malathion doses should be established and research done on them, for confirmation before a mission to use Malathion is embarked on. Risks can be characterized depending on affected subjects, areas affected or systems affected. Previous studies have indicated human deaths from Malathion use. Others include intestinal disorders in children, children leukemia, lung damage and kidney damage. Human birth defects have been confirmed in women exposed to Malathion lice shampoo. Malathion results to brain damage and chromosome defects in human blood cells. Genes could also be lost. The immune system is weakened, where there is increased risk of bacteria or viral infection. Animal deaths have occurred and tumors detected on their bodies. Heart defects appear in exposed fish. (Epidemology, 1992: World Health Organization: Edwards et al, 2007) As a result of the risk assessment, I would not vote for the use of Malathion in Genericville city. The hazard exposed to the people, animals and the environment is too great. The effects outweigh any justification for Malathion use. It would be good if other options of controlling the pest were completely exhausted before using the Malathion. Economically, Malathion use could result to extra costs incurred to correct its negative effects on the people, animals and environment. It may lead to political conflicts. Where the community does not agree with Malathion use, use by the council authority will result to disagreements with the community. References Baker E. et al. 1978. Epidemic Malathion poisoning in Pakistan malaria workers Edwards J. et al. 2007. Worker exposure and a risk assessment of Malathion and fenthion Used in the control of Mediterranean fruit fly in south Australia. Environ. Re. 103 (1) Mediterranean fruit fly in south Australia. Environ. Re. 103 (1) Epidemology: Jan 1992. 3 (1): 32-39 U. S Department of Health and Human Services: agency for toxic substances and disease Registry- medical guidelines for Malathion. Retrieved on 15 April 2008 World health organization www. //who. int/entity/water-sanitation-health/dwq/chemicals/malathion/en Retrieved on 15April 2008

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